Miscarriage cause needs to be identified in order to have proper treatment.
However, there are several different miscarriage causes that have been identified.
The most common miscarriage cause is fetal chromosomal abnormalities, which affects more than 50% of all early pregnancies.
The reason for this is may be abnormalities in the egg, sperm or both.
There are two types of chromosomal abnormalities: numerical and structural. The most common chromosomal abnormalities are:
Trisomy: It is a type of chromosomal abnormality where there will be three chromosomes of one type rather than normal pair. This results in an embryo with 47 chromosomes instead of 46 and will either abort, or develop into a baby with congenital abnormalities. It is more common as reproductive age increases and the abnormalities are not very likely to recur.
Monosomy: In this type, you will notice missing of one chromosome. This condition is called Turner’s syndrome where pregnancies will carry on with only one X chromosome.
Polyploidy In this type, one or more additional set of chromosomes is present, which results in the fertilization of an egg with more than one sperm.
Next miscarriage cause is gene defects. Although some gene defects cause miscarriage, it mostly results in a serious condition with the baby such as cystic fibrosis or Duchenne muscular dystrophy.
Hormonal problems are also among miscarriage causes. Several different hormonal problems are there including low progesterone levels, high LH levels, or thyroid abnormalities.
Low progesterone level: When there is very little production of progesterone by the corpus luteum, then the endometrium may not develop effectively to maintain your pregnancy. Low progesterone levels in early pregnancy usually indicates a pregnancy that has already failed.
High LH levels: Increased levels of luteinizing hormone are most common if you are with PCOS. The LH levels affect the quality of the eggs and even the embryos, and may result in repeated miscarriages.
Thyroid abnormalities are also a miscarriage cause that leads to the loss of pregnancy.
Infection is another miscarriage cause. Infection (severe) such as rubella, cytomegalovirus and listeria infections are miscarriage causes. Even Bacterial vaginosis is a miscarriage cause at late stages.
The next miscarriage cause is immunological. Antiphospholipid antibodies syndrome (APAS) causes recurrent miscarriage. The antibodies circulate in the blood and can cause thrombosis of the placental vessels, which can lead to the baby loss during pregnancy. It occurs mostly in the second trimester.
Excess or hyperactive Natural Killer cells reside in the blood and in the uterus, which can damage the cells that produce the placenta as well as the endocrine system that produce hormones essential for pregnancy.
Uterine abnormalities are also one of the miscarriage causes. However, there are several uterine problems that result in miscarriages, including a misshapen uterus, fibroids, cervical impotence and adhesions.
Chronic maternal illness is a miscarriage cause where some chronic diseases in you such as diabetes, high blood pressure, kidney problems, and systemic lupus may sometimes lead to miscarriage.
Environmental hazards such as radiation, insecticides, toxic chemicals, smoking and alcohol increase toxicity in you (pregnant woman), which may lead to miscarriage.