Cervical cancer is a cancer arising from the cervix and this occurs due to the abnormal growth of cells that have the capacity to intrude into other tissues in various parts of the body. Cervical cancer happens to be one of the most common cancers developing in women globally. The virus called human papillomavirus, or HPV is responsible for the majority cases of this type of cancer.
Sometimes HPV can cause only genital warts or other simpler infections that subside within few weeks, but sometimes the complications can lead to cervical cancer. There are different stages of this cancer and the symptoms also vary accordingly; know the symptoms mentioned below and get the right treatment –
Staging of cancer is done to determine the line of treatment; which depends on the extent to which the malignant cells have advanced.
This is the first stage and at this point the cancerous cells remain in the cervix. is often divided into:
- Stage 1A- the growth is not recognizable without the help of a microscope.
- Stage 1B – the cancerous areas are larger, has not usually spread.
- Stage 1A1 means the width of the cancer cells is lower than 7mm and these cells have penetrated into the tissues below than than 3 mm.
- Stage 1A2 means the width of the cancer cells is below 7mm and has protruded into the cervical tissues to the extent of 3mm to 5mm.
- In stage 1B1 the cancer is no larger than 4 centimetres (cm).
- In stage 1B2 the cancer is larger than 4cm across.
Treatment- Stage 1- Surgery or Radiotherapy
Stage 1B2 – Combined Chemotherapy and Radiotherapy
In stage 2 cervical cancer, the cancer starts migrating out of the womb neck into the neighbouring tissues.
Stage 2 can be divided into:
- Stage 2A- Cancer has migrated to the upper part of vagina.
- Stage 2B- There is spread up into the tissues around the cervix
Stage 2A is divided into
- Stage 2A1- the cancer is 4cm or below 4 cm.
- Stage 2A2- the cancer is more than 4 cm
Treatment- Stage 2A-The treatment of Cervical cancer employs surgical intervention or a combination of radiotherapy and chemptherapy.
Stage 2B-Cervical cancer is usually treated with chemo radiation. This combined mode of treatment is beneficial for cervical cancer in stage 2.
The tumour has invaded the pelvic wall or the vagina in the lower portion. It can be divided into
- Stage 3A- when the cancer has migrated to the vagina in the lower part but not pelvic wall.
- Stage 3B- the tumour has protruded into the pelvic or is obstructing the one or both urethras or the urine draining tubes of the kidney.
Treatment- Stage 3- This stage is treated with Radiotherapy and Chemotherapy.
The tumor has migrated into the rectum or the bladder. The cancerous cells have reached various parts of the body including lungs. It can be divided into:
- Stage 4A means the tumour has grown through to the pelvic or is obstructing the urethras which drain the kidney.
- Stage 4B If the cancer has spread to organs further away, such as the lungs, your doctor may call it
Treatment- Stage 4 – This stage is treated by Surgery, Radiotherapy or Chemotherapy.
Manifestations of protruding cervical cancer are:
- Intermittent discharge of blood from the vagina.
- An overwhelming stench associated with vaginal discharge.
- Pain experienced in the back.
- Sexual intercourse accompanied with pain.
- Difficulty while passing urine
- Facing difficulty while passing stool.
The above mentioned stage structure and symptoms will help you to understand the exact situation and treatment needed to treat the condition.